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Journal of Telecommunications and Information Technology (JTIT) - 4/2019

Adrian Kliks
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Fatma Mbarek and Volodymyr Mosorov
Load Balancing Based on Optimization Algorithms: An Overview
Combinatorial optimization challenges are rooted in real-life problems, continuous optimization problems, discrete optimization problems and other significant problems in telecommunications which include, for example, routing, design of communication networks and load balancing. Load balancing applies to distributed systems and is used for managing web clusters. It allows to forward the load between web servers, using several scheduling algorithms. The main motivation for the study is the fact that combinatorial optimization problems can be solved by applying optimization algorithms. These algorithms include ant colony optimization (ACO), honey bee (HB) and multi-objective optimization (MOO). ACO and HB algorithms are inspired by the foraging behavior of ants and bees which use the process to locate and gather food. However, these two algorithms have been suggested to handle optimization problems with a single-objective. In this context, ACO and HB have to be adjusted to multiobjective optimization problems. This paper provides a summary of the surveyed optimization algorithms and discusses the adaptations of these three algorithms. This is pursued by a detailed analysis and a comparison of three major scheduling techniques mentioned above, as well as three other, new algorithms (resulting from the combination of the aforementioned techniques) used to efficiently handle load balancing issues.
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Hikmat N. Abdullah, Asaad H. Sahar and Thamir R. Saeed
An Improved M-ary Modulation Scheme Based on Chaotic Dynamics
This paper proposes an improved chaos-based M-ary modulation system. It reproduces deterministic chaotic dynamics to create M-ary non-coherent modulation. The proposed modulation system transmits data using autonomous chaotic sequences. It separates the chaotic dynamics through the use of interleavers and realigns them through the use deinterleavers. The simulation results show that the improved scheme overperforms its traditional counterpart. The degree of improvement grows as the M-ary order is increased, with a penalty of increased system complexity.
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Sergiy Fialko
Parallel Algorithms for Forward and Back Substitution in Linear Algebraic Equations of Finite Element Method
This paper considers several algorithms for parallelizing the procedure of forward and back substitution for high-order symmetric sparse matrices on multi-core computers with shared memory. It compares the proposed approaches for various finite-element problems of structural mechanics which generate sparse matrices of different structures.
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Remigiusz Mydlikowski and Krzysztof Maniak
Measurement of Electromagnetic Field Component Emissions as a Precursor of Emerging Hazard in Coal Mines
The article presents the results of research concerning electromagnetic (EM) field emitted by rocks during the process of their destruction. The paper describes a measuring stand designed for subjecting rock samples to axial crushing. During the destruction of rock samples, both components of the electromagnetic field emitted by the rock were recorded. The paper presents the results of research on hard coal samples, presenting the obtained time domain waveforms and frequency spectrum of the emitted EM field components. Further potential uses of tests concerned with EM emitted by rocks are determined. Applications registering EM field in mine environments may provide an early mine collapse warnings.
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Fabio Mangini, Lorenzo Dinia and Fabrizio Frezza
Electromagnetic Scattering by a Cylinder in a Lossy Medium of an Inhomogeneous Elliptically Polarized Plane Wave
In this paper, a rigorous theoretical approach, adopted in order to generalize the Vectorial CylindricalHarmonics (VCH) expansion of an inhomogeneous elliptically polarized plane wave, is presented. An application of the VCH expansion to analyze electromagnetic field scattered by an infinite circular cylinder is presented. The results are obtained using the so-called complex-angle formalism reaching a superposition of Vectorial Cylindrical-Harmonics. To validate the method, a Matlab code was implemented. Also, the validity of the methodology was confirmed through some comparisons between the proposed method and the numerical results obtained based on the Finite Element Method (FEM) in the canonical scenario with a single cylinder.
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Diptangshu Chattopadhyay and Manisha Bharti
Implementation of C-PolSK Modulation in FSO Network and Analysis of its Atmospheric Performance
Free Space Optical (FSO) communication is a quickly developing technology that is designed to handle high data rates while maintaining a good quality factor (Q-factor). Many novel techniques have been implemented to cope with atmospheric attenuating factors, such as fog and rain. Here, we have introduced circular polarization shift keying (C-PolSK) modulation to produce a stable and uniform light beam. The plane of polarized light keeps rotating along with the propagation vector, which helps reduce phase variations and cross-channel effects. C-PolSK provides higher penetrating power and attenuation resistance over linear polarization shift keying (L-PolSK). Two different C-PolSK models have been proposed and graphical comparisons, relying on such parameters as Q-factor, transmission distance and inputoutput power, have been made. The cases of moderate fog and rain attenuation are taken to verify the model’s efficiency. Polarized light is split into two orthogonal components and then modulated using the Mach-Zehnder modulator. One of the models also employs the principle of orthogonal differential phase shifting. Eye diagrams have been provided to verify the bit error rate (BER). The orthogonal differential phase shifted C-PolSK model proves to be the most suitable implementation prototype.
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Zaw Myo Lwin and Thae Su Aye
A Dual-band Circularly-polarized Printed Monopole Antenna for Wi-Fi and WiMAX Applications
This paper presents a rectangular-shaped printed monopole antenna with circular polarization for Wi-Fi (2.4–2.484 GHz) and WiMAX (3.3-3.7 GHz) bands. The antenna relies on asymmetric arrangement of the patch with respect to the microstrip feed, in order to generate circular polarization. Dual-band (Wi-Fi and WiMAX) operation is enabled by inserting a slit in the corner of the ground plane. Simulation results show a bandwidth increase of 15.9% (2.2–2.58 GHz) for Wi-Fi, and of 24.16% (3.13–3.99 GHz) for WiMAX applications. Furthermore, beamwidths at the axial ratio of 3 dB equal 48˚ and 51˚ for the x-z plane and y-z planes, respectively.
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Ajaykumar Notom, Sarvagya Mrinal and Prandkar Parag
Systematic-RLNC Based Secure and QoS Centric Routing Scheme for WSNs
In this paper a highly robust and efficient systematic-random linear network coding (S-RLNC) routing scheme is proposed. Unlike classic security systems, the proposed S-RLNC transmission model incorporates an advanced pre-coding and interleaving concept followed by multigeneration mixing (MGM) based data transmission to assure secure and QoS efficient communication. The proposed S-RLNC MGM based routing scheme exhibits higher throughput (99.5-100%) than the existing NCC-ARQ-WSN protocol (80%). Unlike NCC-ARQ-WSN, the proposed model incorporates multiple enhancements, such as RLNC concept, systematic network coding, MGM concept, IBF provision and redundant packet optimization. Combined, all these optimizations have strengthened the proposed S-RLNC MGM to exhibit optimum performance for secure and QoS-centric communication over WSNs.
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Piotr Szuster
Blob Extraction Algorithm in Detection of Convective Cells for Data Fusion
Earth’s atmosphere is monitored by a multitude of sensors. It is the troposphere that is of crucial importance for human activity, as it is there that the weather phenomena take place. Weather observations are performed by surface sensors monitoring, inter alia, humidity, temperature and winds. In order to observe the developments taking place in the atmosphere, especially in the clouds, weather radars are commonly used. They monitor severe weather that is associated with storm clouds, cumulonimbuses, which create precipitation visible on radar screens. Therefore, radar images can be utilized to track storm clouds in a data fusion system. In this paper an algorithm is developed for the extraction of blobs (interesting areas in radar imagery) used within data fusion systems to track storm cells. The algorithm has been tested with the use of real data sourced from a weather radar network. 100% of convection cells were detected, with 90% of them being actual thunderstorms.
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Anna Plichta
Methods of Classification of the Genera and Species of Bacteria Using Decision Tree
This paper presents a computer-based method for recognizing digital images of bacterial cells. It covers automatic recognition of twenty genera and species of bacteria chosen by the author whose original contribution to the work consisted in the decision to conduct the process of recognizing bacteria using the simultaneous analysis of the following physical features of bacterial cells: color, size, shape, number of clusters, cluster shape, as well as density and distribution of the cells. The proposed method may be also used to recognize the microorganisms other than bacteria. In addition, it does not require the use of any specialized equipment. The lack of demand for high infrastructural standards and complementarity with the hardware and software widens the scope of the method’s application in diagnostics, including microbiological diagnostics. The proposed method may be used to identify new genera and species of bacteria, but also other microorganisms that exhibit similar morphological characteristics.
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