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Journal of Telecommunications and Information Technology (JTIT) - 3/2017

Lara Pajewski Hovik Baghdasaryan Marian Marciniak
Foreword to the Special Issue
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K. K. Ajith and Amitabha Bhattacharya
Improving the GPR Detectability Using a Novel Loop Bowtie Antenna
The Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) technique finds immense applications in civil engineering today, as the most suitable approach for non-destructive testing of pavements, highways, concrete structures, and more. The major challenge in carrying out a GPR evaluation is that the properties of the probed medium are usually unknown. The permittivity and conductivity of the medium may vary from those of air to water. The electromagnetic waves also have a frequency dependent attenuation. The ability of GPR to detect signals reflected and scattered by the targets largely depends upon the antenna performance. This paper studies a novel 11:1 wideband loop bowtie antenna with very good radiation properties in the entire operating bandwidth. Synthetic and experimental results are presented for the return loss and gain of the antenna. Furthermore, experimental results are presented for the radiation patterns in the E- and H-plane. We also used the antenna to measure B-scans over two different pipes, a bamboo, and a reinforced concrete structure. All results obtained with the proposed antenna have been compared with results obtained by using a RC loaded antenna. It has been found that the loop bowtie antenna has excellent detection capability and produces less clutter. The loop loading technique can be applied to existing antennas for improved GPR imaging. This will improve the detectability of GPR by improving the target return signal.
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Fabrizio Frezza, Patrizio Simeoni and Nicola Tedeschi
Analytical Investigation on a New Approach for Achieving Deep Penetration in a Lossy Medium: The Lossy Prism
Recent studies highlighted deep-penetration properties of inhomogeneous waves at the interface between a loss-less and a lossy medium. Such waves can be generated bymeans of radiating structures known as Leaky-Wave Antennas (LWAs). Here, a different approach is proposed basedon the use of a lossy prism capable to generate an inhomogeneous wave when illuminated by a homogeneous wave. Thelossy prism is conceived and designed thinking of Ground-Penetrating Radar (GPR). The results achieved by the lossyprism will be compared with those obtained by means of a previously designed LWA that was created with the identical objective. The approach of this paper is purely theoretical, and it aims at providing basic ideas and preliminary results usefulfor an innovative LWA design.
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Roberto Vescovo and Lara Pajewski
Multiple-ring Circular Arrayfor Ground-Penetrating Radar Applications:Basic Ideas and Preliminary Results
In this paper, the possibility of using a multiple-ring circular array as an antenna array for Ground-Pene-trating Radar systems is investigated. The theory behind theproposed idea is presented. The preliminary numerical results that are obtained suggest that the proposed con guration is promising. It allows achieving a wide frequency bandand low dynamic range ratio of excitations, thus simplifying the feeding network. Further interesting requirements maybe satis ed by exploiting a combination of deterministic andstochastic synthesis techniques to design the array.
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Hovik Baghdasaryan, Tamara Knyazyan, Tamara Hovhannisyan, Marian Marciniak and Lara Pajewski
Enhancement of Air-groundMatching by Means of a Chirped MultilayerStructure: Electromagnetic Modelingwith the Method of Single Expression
The enhancement of air-ground electromagneticmatching by means of a chirped multilayer structure is investigated. The modeling and simulation of the considered structure are performed by using the method of single expression (MSE), which is a convenient and accurate tool for wavelength-scale simulations of multilayers comprising lossy, amplifyingor nonlinear (Kerr-type) materials. Numerical results showthat a suitable chirped multilayer structure can reduce the reection from the ground. Diff erent values of the number oflayers and of the layer thicknesses are considered. The distributions of the electric eld components and the power owdensity within the modelled structures are calculated.
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Alessandro Fedeli, Matteo Pastorino and Andrea Randazzo
Advanced Inversion Techniquesfor Ground Penetrating Radar
Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) systems arenowadays standard inspection tools in several application areas, such as subsurface prospecting, civil engineering and cultural heritage monitoring. Usually, the raw output of GPR isprovided as a B-scan, which has to be further processed inorder to extract the needed information about the inspectedscene. In this framework, inversescattering-based approachesare gaining an ever-increasing interest, thanks to their capabilities of directly providing images of the physical and dielectricproperties of the investigated areas. In this paper, some advances in the development of such inversion techniques in theGPR field are revised and discussed.
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Simone Meschino and Lara Pajewski
SPOT-GPR: A Freeware Toolfor Target Detection and Localizationin GPR Data Developedwithin the COST Action TU1208
SPOT-GPR (release 1.0) is a new freeware tool implementing an innovative Sub-Array Processing method, for the analysis of Ground-Penetrating Radar (GPR) data with the main purposes of detecting and localizing targets. The software is implemented in Matlab, it has a graphical user interface and a short manual. This work is the outcome of a series of three Short-Term Scientific Missions (STSMs) funded by European COoperation in Science and Technology (COST) and carried out in the framework of the COST Action TU1208 “Civil Engineering Applications of Ground Penetrating Radar” (www.GPRadar.eu). The input of the software is a GPR radargram (B-scan). The radargram is partitioned in subradargrams, composed of a few traces (A-scans) each. The multi-frequency information enclosed in each trace is exploited and a set of dominant Directions of Arrival (DoA) of the electromagnetic field is calculated for each sub-radargram. The estimated angles are triangulated, obtaining a pattern of crossings that are condensed around target locations. Such pattern is filtered, in order to remove a noisy background of unwanted crossings, and is then processed by applying a statistical procedure. Finally, the targets are detected and their positions are predicted. For DoA estimation, the MUltiple SIgnal Classification (MUSIC) algorithm is employed, in combination with the matched filter technique. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time the matched filter technique is used for the processing of GPR data. The software has been tested on GPR synthetic radargrams, calculated by using the finite-difference timedomain simulator gprMax, with very good results.
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Florence Sagnard
Development of Data Processing Tools for the Analysis of Radargrams in Utility Detection Using Ground Penetrating Radar
The extraction of quantitative information from Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) data sets (radargrams) to detect and map underground utility pipelines is a challenging task. This study proposes several algorithms included in the main stages of a data processing chain associated with radargrams. It comprises preprocessing, hyperbola enhancing, hyperbola detection and localization, and parameter extraction. Additional parameters related to the GPR system such as the frequency band and the polarization bring data sets additional information that need to be exploited. Presently, the algorithms have been applied step by step on synthetic and experimental data. The results help to guide future developments in signal processing for quantitative parameter estimation.
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Vladimir Buzin, Dmitry Edemsky, Sergey Gudoshnikov, Vladimir Kopeikin, Pavel Morozov, Alexey Popov, Igor Prokopovich, Vladimir Skomarovsky, Nikolay Melnik, Andrey Berkut, Sergey Merkulov, Pavel Vorovsky and Leonid Bogolyubov
Search for Chelyabinsk Meteorite Fragments in Chebarkul Lake Bottom (GPR and Magnetic Data)
The paper summarizes experimental efforts of the Pushkov Institute of Terrestrial Magnetism, Ionosphere and Radio Wave Propagation (IZMIRAN) undertaken in search of the biggest part of Chelyabinsk meteorite in the bottom of lake Chebarkul, South Ural, Russia, and to estimate the ecological effects of its subsequent excavation.
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Francesco Napoli, Lara Pajewski, Roberto Vescovo and Marian Marciniak
Multi-Objective Evolutionary Optimization of Aperiodic Symmetrical Linear Arrays
In this paper, a multi-objective approach is applied to the design of aperiodic linear arrays of antennas. The adopted procedure is based on a standard Matlab implementation of the Controlled Elitist Non-Dominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm II. Broadside symmetrical arrays of isotropic radiators are considered with both uniform and non-uniform excitations. The work focuses on whether, and in which design conditions, the aperiodic solutions obtained by the adopted standard multi-objective evolutionary procedure can approximate or outperform the Pareto-optimal front for the uniformspacing case computable by the Dolph-Chebyshev method.
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Giulia Buttazzoni and Roberto Vescovo
Reconfigurable Antenna Arrays with Phase-only Control in the Presence of Near-field Nulls
In this paper an effective iterative method is presented for the power synthesis of reconfigurable antenna arrays. The algorithm is suitable for arrays of arbitrary geometry, including the case where a large number of elements is involved. The reconfigurability is achieved by phase-only control, so that the excitation amplitude of each array element remains constant during the reconfiguration process. Such amplitudes may be different from one array element to the others, and they are not assigned a priori, but are optimized. Furthermore, the electric field is imposed to vanish in a number of prescribed points of the near-field region, so that a strong field reduction is obtained in a neighborhood of them.
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Fabrizio Frezza, Marian Marciniak and Lara Pajewski
The Optimum-efficiency Beam Multiplier for an Arbitrary Number of Output Beams and Power Distribution
This paper deals with phase gratings working in the paraxial domain. The profile of the optimum-efficiency beam multiplier with an arbitrary number of output diffraction orders is derived in an analytic form by exploiting methods from the calculus of variation. The output beams may be equiintense or with arbitrary distribution of power. Numerical examples are given for different values of the number of output beams.
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Hovik Baghdasaryan, Tamara Knyazyan, Tamara Hovhannisyan, Gurgen Mardoyan, Marian Marciniak and Trevor Benson
Influence of Chirped DBR Reflector on the Absorption Efficiency of Multi-nanolayer Photovoltaic Structures: Wavelength-scale Analysis by the Method of Single Expression
An electromagnetic wavelength-scale analysis of the optical characteristics of multi-nanolayer photovoltaic (PV) structures: without an antireflection coating, with an antireflection coating on the top of the structure, and with both the antireflection coating on the top and a broadband non-periodic (chirped) distributed Bragg reflector (DBR) on the bottom of the structure is performed. All the PV structures studied are based on a Si p-i-n type absorber supported by a metallic layer (Cu) and SiO2 substrate. The top-to-bottom electromagnetic analysis is performed numerically by the method of single expression (MSE). Absorbing and reflecting characteristics of the multi-nanolayer PV structures are obtained. The influence of the thicknesses and permittivities of the layers of the PV structures on the absorbing characteristics of the structures is analyzed to reveal favourable configurations for enhancement of their absorption efficiency. The localizations of the electric component of the optical field and the power flow distribution within all the PV structures considered are obtained to confirm an enhancement of the absorption efficiency in the favorable configuration. The results of the electromagnetic wavelength-scale analysis undertaken will have scientific and practical importance for optimizing the operation of thin-film multi-nanolayer PV structures incorporating a chirped DBR reflector with regards to enhancing their efficiency.
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Lara Pajewski and Giuseppe Schettini
A Photonic-Crystal Selective Filter
A highly selective filter is designed, working at 1.55 μm and having a 3-dB bandwidth narrower than 0.4 nm, as is required in Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexed systems. Different solutions are proposed, involving photonic crystals made rectangular- or circular-section dielectric rods, or else of holes drilled in a dielectric bulk. The polarization and frequency selective properties are achieved by introducing a defect in the periodic structure. The device is studied by using in-house codes implementing the full-wave Fourier Modal Method. Practical guidelines about advantages and limits of the investigated solutions are given.
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Lara Pajewski, Fabrizio Frezza, Marian Marciniak, Emanuele Piuzzi and Giorgia V. Rossi
Experimental Analysis of a Directive Antenna with a 3D-EBG Superstrate
A three-dimensional electromagnetic crystal is employed as a directivity-enhancing superstrate for planar antennas. The crystal is a woodpile made of alumina rods. In a shielded anechoic chamber, the performance of a patch antenna covered with the woodpile is measured. The superstrate is positioned at different distances from the antenna and its orientation is varied in the 8–12 GHz frequency range. The return loss, gain and radiation pattern in the E- and H-planes are measured. The electromagnetic behavior of Fabry-Perot cavities with woodpile mirrors, equivalent to the compound radiator, is also studied. The main effect of the crystal on the antenna performance is an enhancement of about 10 dB in maximum gain. A rather complete series of experiments is presented, highlighting the role of the periodic structure in the directivity enhancement and allowing a deeper understanding of the electromagnetic phenomena involved in EBG resonator antennas. Benefits and disadvantages of this kind of antennas are discussed and ideas for future research are given.
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